The Great Discourse on the Turning of the Wheel of Dhamma - Part V

(Continued )


        There lived in a village in Sri Lanka, a man who was misbehaving with the wife of his elder brother. The woman was more passionately attached to her paramour than to her lawful husband. She, therefore, instigated her lover to get rid of his elder brother. The man remonstrated, "Woman! Don't ever talk like that," but after she had repeated her evil suggestions for three times, the lover asked, "How would I go about it?" She replied, "You go with an axe and wait for him at the riverside near the big caper tree. I'll send him there." Thereupon, the man proceeded there and lay in wait for his elder brother, hiding amongst the branches of the tree.

       When the husband came back from work in the forest, the wife made a show of loving affection for him and fondly brushing his hair said, "Your hair needs cleaning, it is too dirty. Why not go and shampoo it at the riverside near the big caper tree?" Happy with the thought 'my wife is very tender with her affections for me', he went accordingly to the bathing place at the riverside. He was preparing to wash his hair, bending his head down, when his younger brother came out from the hiding place and cruelly chopped his head off with the axe.

       Because of the clinging attachment to his wife, he was reborn a green snake (rat snake according to Sri Lankan scholars). Still attached to his wife, the snake took to dropping himself down from the roof of the house upon the woman. Realizing that the snake must have been her former husband, she caused it to be killed and removed. Even after passing away from the snake's existence, his attachment for his former wife still remained strong and he was reborn a dog in his old house. As a dog it was still clinging to his former wife, following her everywhere even when she went to the forest. People made derisive remarks, 'The hunter woman with the dog is going out. Wonder where she is headed for?' The woman asked her lover again to kill the dog.

       His attachment, still intense and persisting, the dog was reborn a calf in the same house. The young calf also followed her everywhere, drawing laughter and ridicule from the people again, 'Look, the cowherd has come out. Wonder which pasture her cattle are going to graze in?" Again the woman asked her man to kill the young calf, but his tenacious attachment to his wife caused rebirth again, this time in the womb of herself.

       In the human world which he regained, he was born endowed with jatissara nana (faculty of recalling previous existences). Exercising this faculty, he went over the past four existences and was greatly distressed when he came to know that they were all terminated at the insistence of his former wife. "What an irony to have taken rebirth in the womb of such an enemy," he lamented.

       He would not let his mother, the enemy, touch him. Whenever the mother tried to hold him, the baby cried vociferously. So the grandfather had to take over the task of bringing up the child. When the child reached the age when he could speak, the grandfather asked him, "My dear child, why do you cry when your mother tries to hold you?" "This woman is no mother to me. She is my enemy who killed me in four successive existences." So saying, he recounted to his grandfather the story of his previous lives. On hearing this sad tale, the old man wept embracing the child and said, "Come, my poor grandchild, let us get away. I see no gain in staying here." They went away and stayed in a monastery where both of them received ordination and in time, through practice of meditation, were able to attain arahatta path and fruition and gained Arahatship.

       The moral to be drawn from this episode is that attachment gives rise to repeated new existence at the very location of that attachment. This story clearly bears out the truth of the teaching, ponobhavika, 'attachment brings about fresh existences'. After the existences of a snake, a dog, a calf, and meeting violent death in each, in the last life of a human being when he attained Arahatship, the tanha was completely extinguished. There would be no more rebirth for him and he would be free from all forms of suffering.

       It would be well to take to heart the moral of this story and strive for freedom from all suffering through the practice of vipassana meditation. There would be no end of quoting similar stories from the Pali texts and commentaries. Let us now come to the experiences and episodes met with in modern times.


       From 1291 to 1301 B.E. we were resident at Taikwine monastery of Moulmein. At that time there was a dhamma-preaching Sayadaw of great repute. At the traditional feeding ceremony, a week after the death of a lawyer donor of his, he gave the following sermon at the merit-sharing service for the departed one.

       "This life of mine is transitory, but my death is truly permanent. I must die inevitably. My life will end only in death. Life alone is impermanent; death, on the other hand, is definitely stable, permanent."

       This contemplation on death was used as the theme of his sermon. We were present on the occasion of that ceremony and had heard his sermon personally. Within a few days after this event, we heard the sad news of the demise of the dhamma-preaching Sayadaw. We had thought then that he would have passed away contemplating on death as he had preached only a few days ago. We heard that the Sayadaw had met a violent death at the hands of assassins who had stabbed him with a dagger.

       About three years later, a certain young boy from Mergui came to Moulmein accompanied by his parents. He had been worrying his parents, asking them to take him to Moulmein. On arriving at the monastery of the former Sayadaw, the boy informed his parents that in his previous existence he was the presiding Sayadaw of that monastery. He could tell every thing about the monastery and whatever he said was found to be true. He remembered all the leading monks from the nearby monasteries and addressed them by names he had used to call them previously.

       When he was asked by mentioning the name about a certain man, who was a close disciple of the late Sayadaw, the boy replied, "Afraid, afraid." When questioned what he was afraid of, he recounted how that man in association with some persons had stabbed him to death, how he had run away from them, and coming to the river bank and finding a boat, he made his escape riding on the boat. Later, arriving at the village on the Mergui coast, he said he entered the house of his present parents.

       The visions he saw of how he had fled from his assassins, how he found a boat on the river bank, how he took a ride on it and came to the house of his parents, were all gati nimittas (signs of destiny) which had appeared to him at the approach of death. This is also a notable incident which confirms the fact that attachment brings forth new existence.


       In a certain town in Monywa district, there lived a man who was engaged in the business of money-lending during the British regime. He asked for the return of a loan from a certain farmer who replied he had already repaid the money he had borrowed. The moneylender repeatedly insisted that the farmer had not yet repaid the loan. Finally, he declared, "May I become a buffalo in your house if I had really asked for a double payment of the forty kyats which you said you had already returned." With this oath, he pressed again for the return of his loan. The poor farmer was thus forced to make knowingly a double settlement of the loan he had taken.

       Soon after, the moneylender passed away. And there was born in the house of the farmer, who had made a double payment of his loan, a young buffalo. Guessing that the moneylender had made a rebirth in his house as a buffalo, the poor farmer called out to the young buffalo, "Saya, Saya, please come,' in the same way he used to address the old moneylender. The young buffalo answered his call and came to him. Believing now that the old moneylender had really become a buffalo in his house according to his oath, the farmer started to talk about this incident. Thereupon, the daughter of the departed moneylender went to court suing the poor farmer for defaming her father.

       The judge who heard the case sent for the appellant, the defendant and the young buffalo together with witnesses for both sides. In the court, the farmer called out 'Saya, Saya, please come' to the buffalo in the same way he used to address the moneylender. The buffalo responded to his call by coming to him. The moneylender's daughter used to address her father as 'Shi, Shi'. In the court when she said 'Shi, Shi', the buffalo went to her. The judge came to the conclusion that the poor farmer was making an honest statement (without any intention of defamation) and accordingly discharged the case. From this story it is not hard to believe that a human being may be reborn a buffalo. It is plain, therefore, that tanha will cause rebirth. It should be observed also that swearing a false oath is liable to land one in dire calamity.


        There was a village of about 400 houses called Chaungyo, ten miles north-west of Taungdwingyi. Two young men of the village, Nga Nyo and Ba Saing, who were friends earned their living by going round villages selling betel leaves. Coming back one day from the rounds, Ba Saing went short of rice on the way. He borrowed a small measure of rice from Nga Nyo to cook his dinner. After dinner, while they made their way back to the village leisurely in the moonlit night, poor Ba Saing was bitten by a poisonous snake and met instant death. It was sometime between 1270 and 1280 B.E. when the two friends were about the ages of twenty or so.

        Probably because he hung into the thought of the loan of the small measure of rice, at the time of his death, he was born a cockerel in Nga Nyo's house. Nga Nyo trained it to become a fighting cock and entered it in fighting competitions. The first three competitions were won by Nga Nyo's cock which unfortunately lost the fourth fight because its opponent happened to be older and stronger than itself. Nga Nyo expressed his disappointment and anger by holding his cock by its leg and thrashing it against the ground. Bringing the half-dead cock home, he threw it down near the water-pot where Nga Nyo's cow came and touched it with her lips (as if expressing her sympathy).

       The poor cock died afterwards and took conception in the womb of the cow. When the calf had grown up considerably, it was bought for four kyats by his friends for a feast which Nga Nyo would also join. While they were butchering the calf and cutting up the meat in preparation for their feast, a couple from Taungdwingyi, a clerk and his wife, happened to arrive on the scene. Expressing her sympathy for the calf, the clerk's wife said, "If it were my calf, I wouldn't have treated it so cruelly. Even if it had died a natural death, I wouldn't have the heart to eat its flesh. I would just bury it."

       Sometime afterwards, a son was born to the clerk's wife. The child remained without speech till he was seven when, one day his father told him, "Son, do utter some words and talk to us. Today is pay day. I'll buy and bring back some nice clothes for you." Keeping his promise, the father came back in the evening with some pretty garments for his son. He said, "Here, Son, these beautiful clothes are for you. Do speak to us now." The boy then uttered, "Nga Nyo's measure of rice."

       The father said, "Son, just talk to us. Not only a measure, but a whole bag of rice we will pay back the loan for you." Thereupon the boy said, "If so, put the bag of rice on the cart. We will go now to settle my debt." After putting a bag of rice on the cart, they set off on their journey. The father asked the son, "Now, where to?" The child directed his father to drive towards the north of Taungdwingyi. Eventually they came to Chaungyo village when the son said, "That's it. That's the village," and kept directing his father through the village lanes until they came to Nga Nyo's house. Upon enquiring whether it was indeed U Nyo's house, U Nyo himself confirmed it by coming out from the house. As he approached the cart, the child hailed him, "Hey Nga Nyo, do you still remember me?" The elderly man was offended to be rudely addressed as 'Nga Nyo' by a mere child, the age of his son, but became pacified when the clerk explained, saying, "Please do not be offended, U Nyo. This child is under some strange circumstances."

       When they got into the house, the boy began, "So, Nga Nyo, you don't remember me? We were once together going round the villages selling betel leaves. I borrowed a small measure of rice from you. Then I was bitten by a poisonous snake and died before I could return the loan. I then became a cockerel in your house. After winning three fights for you, I lost the fourth fight because my opponent was much stronger than I was. For losing that fight, you beat me to death in anger. Half dead, you threw me down near the water pot and a cow came and kissed me. I took conception in her womb and was reborn a cow. When I became a heifer, you all killed me to eat. At that time a clerk and his wife, who are now my father and mother, came nearby and had expressed sympathy for me. After my death as a cow, I was born as a son to my present father and mother. I have now come to repay my debt of the measure of rice."

       All that the child recounted were found to be true by U Nyo who wept, feeling repentant for all the ill-treatment he had meted out to his former friend.

       With this story we want to stress again that unless tanha has been rooted out, repeated rebirths in new existences are unavoidable.


       About 1300 B.E., there was resident in the Payagyi monastery of Mandalay a student Bhikkhu called U An Seinna. He was of good build, clear complexion and full of faith in the dhamma. He was a good student, too, devoting himself wholeheartedly to the study of Pitaka literature. One day, while washing the almsbowl he addressed his colleagues, "I urge you to take care, Revered sirs, to be of good behaviour while you are living on the almsfood of the donors. I am living a heedful life, having had the personal experiences of three existences."

       One of his colleagues was curious and asked him about his previous lives. He recounted thus, "I passed away from human life to become a female demon. I suffered terribly in that life, having scarcely anything to eat, no decent place to live in, roaming here and there to look for a resting place. From a female demon, I became a draught cattle. I was herded in the same pen with a team mate, whose nostrils were running with putrid nasal fluid. As its nasal smell was becoming unbearable, I goaded it to keep it away from me and the owner beat me up thinking I was bullying the other cattle, domineering over it. When I passed away from that existence, I regained human life and becoming agitated with religious emotion, have now taken to the life of a Bhikkhu."

       This story also serves to emphasise the fact that as long as tanha persists, rebirth is inevitable. It also shows what a horrible life is that of demon and how, handicapped by the inability to communicate, a cattle is liable to be misunderstood by man and could be subjected to maltreatment consequently. These accounts should serve to cause terror and incite religious emotions in us


       About 1310 B.E. the head Sayadaw of a village monastery in Monywa district was shot to death by a rebel leader who accused the Sayadaw of 'ill-treating' his underling. The Sayadaw is now in human existence, a Bhikkhu again. We hear that he had even passed some of the scriptural examinations. This Bhikkhu recounted, "I became a cattle after being shot to death, then a dog and now a human being again." To go down from the level of a Bhikkhu in human life to that of a cattle, a dog, is very degrading, If tanha remains uneradicated, it is possible to go down the ladder of existence further still. There is the instance of Bhikkhu Tissa who became a body louse in the time of the Buddha. Thus realizing that anyone with tanha remaining uneradicated (ditthi and vicikiccha also still intact) is liable to be subjected to rebirths, it is essential to strive for complete eradication of tanha or in the very least, to work for elimination of ditthi and vicikiccha.


       In about 1323 B.E. there appeared in Pha Aung We village near Daiku, a strange young child who said that he was previously the presiding monk of the Ywa Waing village about two miles away. The child was intelligent with good retentive memory. When taken to the monastery which he said he was resident in, he appeared to know all the articles in the building and was able to identify each object by recalling the name of its donor. What he said was found to be all true. He said he had become a crowing lizard in the monastery when he died as the presiding monk. As the crowing lizard, he met his death when he leapt across from the monastery to a palm tree nearby. He missed the tree and fell to the ground breaking his thigh. The injury caused him death. When he died, he rode along on the cart of a farmer from Pha Aung village who had his field near his monastery and stayed in the house of the farmer. What he said about riding on the cart was the appearance of gati nimitta, sign of destiny as death approached.

       This story should also cause the realization that with tanha still lingering, fresh existence could arise and taking fright from this realization, one should develop ariya magga to rid oneself of tanha. The reason why we bring out these evidential stories of modern times is because there are some people who maintain that there is no such thing as afterlife. Some are undecided and perplexed, not being able to conclude whether there is afterlife or not. In spite of clear accounts of renewed existences in the scriptural literature, many are sceptical of what was written of ancient times. In order to provoke faith in kamma and its resultant effects and belief in afterlife and to remain steady with such conviction, we have brought out these stories. Similar stories abound, which we can produce, but enough has been said to accomplish our aim.

       Thus, as stated above, because tanha can cause rebirths, the Blessed One had taught, "This hunger, this thirst, the craving gives rise to fresh rebirth and bound up with pleasure and lust, finds even fresh delight now here, now there." He also gave the enunciation of this tanha. What is this craving? Firstly, there is this thirsting desire for sensual pleasures. Secondly, there is attachment to the belief of eternality. Thirdly, there is holding onto the view that there is nothing after life. These three types of craving are the Truth of the Origin of Suffering.


        Of these three types, kama tanha is craving for pleasurable sense-objects, whether one's own or belonging to other persons. Craving which arises on seeing a beautiful object of sight is kama tanha. Here, object of sight relates not only to appearance, colour, etc., but to the whole form or body of man or woman which serves as the basis of the sight, the clothes worn and other objects pertaining to him or her. Likewise, pleasurable sound and sound objects, delightful smell and its source, delicious taste and food producing the taste, men and women who prepare and serve the delicious food, tactile sensations of rapture and objects producing such sensations - all of these constitute objects of pleasure, and craving for them is termed kama tanha. In short, desire or craving for any pleasurable sense object is kama tanha.

       Wishing to be born a human being, a celestial being, wishing to be born a man or a woman; longing to enjoy the sensual pleasures as a human being, as a celestial being, as a man or a woman - all these cravings are also kama tanha. Therefore, we say that taking delight in any pleasurable thought or object is kama tanha.

       On seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or touching a sense object, if one considers it to be pleasant, a liking is at once developed for it. Thinking it to be pleasant amounts to avijja, which covers up the true nature of the sense object and give rise to false views about it. Avijja takes what is transitory to be permanent; what is suffering because of incessant arising and vanishing, to be pleasant; takes mere physical and mental phenomena which are not soul nor living entity as soul or living entity; considers one's own physical body or other people's body which are repulsive and disgusting as beauteous and pleasing.

       Thus thinking what is unpleasant to be pleasant, liking is developed for it; and liking it and desiring it lead to craving which drives one into activities for the fulfilment of that craving. Such volitional activities are the kammas and saïkharas which are responsible for formation of new aggregates of nama and rupa of the new existence. As such, each instance of liking or desiring a sense object amounts to venturing into a new round of becoming.

        Influenced by the tanha, abhisankhara consciousness, otherwise called marana sanna javana tenaciously holds onto the kamma, kamma nimitta or gati nimitta, the three signs which appear as death approaches. Because of this tenacious clinging to the objects seen at death's door, the moment after death consciousness vanishes pati sandhe (relinking consciousness) arises holding onto the last seen objects to give rise to new birth. Hence, this tanha is described as ponobhavika -- liable to give rise to new birth.


        According to the Commentary, bhava tanha is the tanha that is accompanied by sassata ditthi (wrong view of eternalism). Here, bhava means becoming or being. Hence, bhava tanha is craving based on the belief in the permanence and stability of existence. Sassata ditthi is holding to the wrong view that the soul or the living entity does not die or dissolve away - although the coarse physical body perishes, the soul, the living entity is not subjected to dissolution. It enters into a new body and remains there. Even if the world crumbles and breaks up, it remains eternally permanent and never perishes.

       Religious faiths outside of the teachings of the Buddha mostly hold this view of eternalism. Some of them believe that, after death, man remains permanently in heaven or suffers eternal damnation in hell according to God's wish. Others take the view that a being migrates from one existence to another according to kamma and exists permanently. And again, others believe that a being exists eternally changing from one life to another on a prescribed set course.

       In short, any belief that holds the view that 'soul or living entity moves on without dissolution to new existences' is sassata ditthi, wrong belief of eternalism. For instance, a bird on a tree flies away to another tree when the first tree falls. When the second tree falls, it flies to a third tree. Likewise, the soul or living entity, on the dissolution of a gross body or form on which it is dependent, moves on to another coarse body, itself remaining everlasting, cannot be destroyed.

       Tanha accompanied by the wrong view of eternalism is termed bhava tanha (craving for existence). This tanha takes delight in the view that the soul or living entity is permanent, enduring. This 'I', which has been in permanent existence since eternity, feels the sensations and will continue feeling them. Believing thus, it takes delight in every object seen, heard, touched or known and also in the objects which one hopes to come to enjoy in the future. It wishes to enjoy a prosperous happy life now and in the future, to be born in good, happy existences; wants to enjoy in the coming existences the rich life of human or celestial beings. Some wish to be born always a man, some a woman. All these are bhava tanha.

       Every time craving arises for sense objects which are presently available or for the existence one is in now, or in looking forward to the existence one wishes to be in, because of this tanha, a conditioning influence or potential power is being built up for the arising of a new life. That is why the Buddha taught ponobhavika . . . liable to give rise to new birth. We have summarised thus:

       2. Craving for existence with the notion that it is eternal is bhava tanha.


        In the term vibhava tanha, vibhava means non-becoming, non-being, annihilation of existence. Craving for the view 'that there is existence only while alive, that there is nothing after death', is termed vibhava tanha. This is the tanha which is accompanied by the wrong view of non-existence (uccheda ditthi) which holds that 'nothing remains after death; there is complete annihilation'. It is the doctrine preached by Ajita, the leader of a sect during the Buddha's time. His teaching runs thus: An individual is made up of the four Great Primary elements. When he dies, the earth element of his body goes into the mass of the earth element that exists in the inanimate external bodies. (What it means is: The element of earth which had manifested itself as hardness or coarseness while in the living body, merges itself with the inanimate external earth element, the earth element of the dead body. In time, it turns into material earth (pathavi rupa) which is again converted into earth element of trees and plants, etc.)

       The water element of the living body flows into the inanimate mass of water (that is to say the wetness or fluidity of the dead becomes the moisture or fluidity of the mass of water).

       The fire element of the living body merges with the mass of inanimate external heat and the living air element flows into the mass of inanimate external air. All knowing faculties (organs of senses: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, etc.) move over into space (Nihilists holding the uccheda view do not recognise separate existence of eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, etc. They hold the view that the material forms of the eye, ear, etc., themselves see, hear, taste, touch, etc. Mana, otherwise called the indriya, itself thinks. They explained the cessation of consciousness in terms of the six faculties of sense which, according to them, merge with space or disappear into space. . .)

       Be he a fool or a wise man, when he dies he completely disappears. Nothing is left after death. The fool does not suffer in a new existence for his past misdeeds. The wise man does not get a new existence in which he enjoys the fruits of his good kammas. After death everything disappears.

       This is then some of the teachings of Ajita who holds the view of nihilism. This ideology may be readily accepted by those who are reluctant to avoid evil or to do good. As it is postulated by this ideology that there is no life, nothing exists after death, it amounts to the admission that there is life before death. This question may arise then: What is that that exists before death? The answer according to their line of reasoning could only be that it is the living self (atta) or being (satta). Thus, although Ajita maintained that an individual is made up of the four great primaries, it must be said that for him, atta or satta exists. Because of this attachment to self, holders of this view argue that instead of wasting time in doing good deeds for the forthcoming existences, full opportunity should be taken of the present moment for the enjoyment of pleasures. The craving accompanied by this nihilistic view that nothing remains after death, everything is destroyed, is termed vibhava tanha. To summarise:

       3. Craving which arises accompanied by nihilistic view is vibhava tanha.

       This vibhava tanha likes the idea that after death, existence is annihilated without any special effort. The reason is that one who holds this view shrinks from the practice of meritorious deeds and does not abstain from doing evil deeds. The evil deeds committed are also innumerable. If new life occurs after death, these evil deeds will bear unwholesome fruits which, of course, they cannot relish. Only if nothing happens after death and there is no new existence, their misdeeds will be expunged; they will have to bear no responsibility for them and escape scot free from all consequences of their evil actions. Hence, this great appeal for this nihilistic ideology.

       At the same time, holding that the time for enjoying is now, the present life before death, they are too eager to go after any desirable objects of pleasure. Consequently, they go all out in the pursuit of what they consider to be pleasurable. This ardent pursuit of pleasure leads to commission of kammas and sankharas, every act of which contributes to the formation of new life.

       And every time there is delight in, and enjoyment of pleasures of the present life, impulse of this tanha is imparted to the stream of consciousness, life-continuum. Consequently, javana consciousness, proximate to death, otherwise called the abhisankhara vinnana, holds on to the death signs, namely, kamma, kamma nimitta and gati nimitta. While holding on to these objects, when death comes with death consciousness, rebirth consciousness arises for a new existence conditioned by any of the three signs. Thus, the man afflicted with uccheda ditthi is reborn, whether he likes it or not, in a new existence, because of his tanha, craving for pleasurable objects. And his new existences is very likely to be in inferior and miserable states because he had developed nothing but evil deeds previously.

       The Buddha had taught, therefore, that this type of tanha, namely, vibhava tanha, also gives rise to new existence, ponobhavika. Thus all the three types of craving, kama tanha, bhava tanha and vibhava tanha lead to new life and suffering. Therefore, we have summarised:

       4. True cause of suffering lies in the three tanhas.

       The abovementioned three tanhas are the origin of sufferings starting from jati (birth) to upadanakkhandha (the groups of grasping) and are, therefore, termed samudaya sacca, the Truth of the Origin of Suffering.

       As to where these tanhas arise and take root, the Maha Satipatthana Sutta states: 'Wherever in the world, there are delightful and pleasurable things, there this tanha (craving) arises and takes root.'

       Here, 'craving arises' means actual arising of the craving because of delightful and pleasurable things. This is known as pariyutthana kilesa. By 'taking root' is meant that, failing to contemplate on the impermanent nature of pleasurable things, craving for them lies dormant, taking root to arise when favourable circumstances permit. This latent craving, lying dormant in sense-objects which escape being contemplated on, is known as arammananusaya. Vipassana meditation eradicates this defilement.

       The delightful and pleasurable things from which craving arises are described elaborately in the Maha Satipatthana Sutta and may be summarised as:

  1. Eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind . . . the six doors of senses.
  2. Visual object, sound, smell, taste, bodily impressions and mind objects . . . the six objects of senses.
  3. Eye consciousness, ear consciousness, etc. . . . six types of consciousness.
  4. Six types of sense impressions, contacts . . . six phassas.
  5. Six types of feeling born of sense impressions, etc.

       These delightful and pleasurable things should be contemplated on in the practice of meditation. Failing to recognize them as impermanent, unsatisfactory, etc. through heedful noting will result in their becoming the breeding grounds for craving. These two types of craving, namely, anusaya tanha (the dormant craving) for the pleasurable objects which have escaped being noted as they really are at the time of seeing, hearing, etc., and pariyutthana tanha, which has arisen from the pleasurable things, constitute the noble Truth of origin of suffering such as birth, etc. This fact should be thoroughly understood and remembered.

       We have explained the Truth of the Origin of Suffering sufficiently. We must end our discourse on it here.

        May you all good people present in this audience, by virtue of having given respectful attention to this Great Discourse on the Turning of the Wheel of Dhamma, be able to dispel temporarily or eradicate completely the craving, otherwise called the Truth of the Origin of Suffering by incessant contemplation and through whatever path and fruition you have chosen, achieve speedy realisation of Nibbana, the end of all sufferings.

Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu

End of part V of the discourse on Dhammacakka

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